Gynaecology or gynecology focuses on diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians.
Some of the more common operations that gynaecologists perform include:
- Termination of pregnancy
- Dilation and curettage (removal of the uterine contents for various reasons including miscarriage and menorrhagia; procedurally very similar to the above);
- Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus);
- Oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries);
- Tubal ligation;
- Exploratory laparoscopy or laparotomy (used to diagnose and treat sources of pelvic and abdominal pain dysmenorrhea vaginal bleeding etc.)
- Colposuspension ("tightening" of the ligaments around the vagina a common therapy for incontinence and discomfort in older women);
- Large Loop Excision of the Transition Zone (LLETZ) where the surface of the cervix containing pre-cancerous cells identified on Pap smear are removed).