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Wilms tumour: Treatment, symptoms, advice and help

About wilms tumour

Wilms tumour is a malignant embryonal neoplasm of the kidney.

Wilms tumour: Incidence, age and sex

The incidence remains remarkably constant with 8 cases per 1 million children, younger than 15 years annually. Eighty per cent of such cases, occur in children younger than 5 years. The incidence peaks in children between the ages 3 and 4 years. The gender ratio is close to 1:1.

Signs & symptoms of wilms tumour: Diagnosis

The classic wilms tumour appears as a silent mass in the abdomen detected accidentally by the parents. Abdominal pain occurs in approximately one-third of the patients. The mass is usually hard, smooth, and confined to one side of the abdomen.

Hematuria has been observed in 12% to 25% of the patients and hypertension has been reported in 25% of cases. Non-specific symptoms such as fever, malaise, constipation, and anorexia may be reported, but weight loss is an uncommon association.

The evaluation includes complete blood counts, liver and kidney function studies, a skeletal survey, chest radiography, ultrasonography, and a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen, lungs, metastasis.

Causes and prevention of wilms tumour

Wilms tumour occurs in hereditary and nonhereditary forms. The hereditary form is autosomal dominant and may be associated with other congenital anomalies and some syndromes like Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Perlman syndrome, Sotos syndrome and Denys-Drash syndrome.

Wilms tumour: Complications

Metastasis to the lungs bone and brain may occur. Hepatic parenchymal involvement is rare. Polycythemia(increased viscosity of the blood), acquired von Willebrand disease (a bleeding disorder) and hypercalcemia have been reported.

Wilms tumour: Treatment

Wilms tumour is sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Nevertheless, the first line of therapy is complete surgical excision of the tumour whenever possible. An aggressive approach to metastatic disease has resulted in the salvage of many patients. Cardiac, renal and hepatic dysfunction, also have been described secondary to radiation, chemotherapy, or both.