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Typhoid fever: Treatment, symptoms, advice and help

About typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is a food borne infection endemic seen in the developing countries.

Typhoid fever: Incidence, age and sex

In developing countries the incidence is 100-1000 per100000 population.The incidence is higher in children and they are at higher risk of complications.

Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever: Diagnosis

In the first week there is fever, headache, myalgia, relative bradycardia, constipation, diarrhoea and vomiting in children .In the second week there are rose spots on trunk, splenomegaly, cough and abdominal distension. Blood culture is the most important diagnosis method in a suspected case. The widal reaction detects antibodies to the causative organism.

Causes and prevention of typhoid fever

It is caused by infection with Salmonella Typhi and S. paratyphi A and B which is transmitted by the faecal-oral route. Improved sanitation and living conditions reduce the incidence of typhoid. Typhoid vaccine is also effective in prevention.

Typhoid fever: Complications

Complications of typhoid fever include bowel perforation and haemorrhage, bone and joint infection, meningitis, cholecystitis, myocarditis, nephritis.

Typhoid fever: Treatment

The fluoroquinolones remain the drugs of choice (e.g. ciprofloxacin 500mg 12 hourly). Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime are useful alternatives. Azithromycin (500mg once daily) has been shown to be an alternative where fluoroquinoline resistance is present.